Classical psychoanalytic theory is modified by a number of workers. Probably the most common of these will be the so-called neo-Freudians who minimized the importance of sexual forces and stressed the importance of social influences; they include Karen Homey, Erich Fromm, Harry Stack Sullivan, and -Erik Erikson. Others, for example Freud’s daughter Anna, remained more loyal on the orthodox tradition, but elaborated and emphasized the role with the ego in development.
Despite the countless modifications of Freud’s original theory, this general perspective is severely criticized on both conceptual and methodological grounds.
For example, psychoanalytic formulations rest totally on the impressions and recollections of clinical cases. They also involve large inferential leaps ‘from what on earth is observed to what exactly is interpreted as existing. In addition, the mechanisms Freud postulated are intrapsychic and infrequently unconscious and they are therefore difficult, or else impossible, to research. Thus, much in the criticism of psychoanalytic theory has rested on its untestability. However, criticism originates on other grounds at the same time.
Those working in the psychoanalytic tradition today have attemptedto expand their methodologies. For example, the application of systematic observation continues to be attempted. Some workers in this particular tradition have also attempt to incorporate recent research findings on infant and child development inside their conceptualizations (Shapiro and Esman, 1992; Zeanah et al., 1989).
Psychoanalytic theory certainly has a important set up the history of childhood disorders and treatment, and activity continues in accordance with the conceptualizations and treatments produced from this viewpoint (Bemporad, 1991; Target and Fonagy, 1994). The strong influence with the psychoanalytic perspective in drawing attention to your importance and power of infant and early childhood experiences, the benefits of relationships with parents, as well as the phases of child development happen to be noted.
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